Classification of commonly used Cemented Carbide
Commonly used cemented carbide with WC as the tension factor, according to whether to participate in other carbides and is divided into the following three categories:
(1) Tungsten-cobalt (WC+Co) Cemented Carbide (YG) "As long as processing pig iron" It consists of WC and Co, with high bending strength, toughness, good thermal conductivity, but poor heat resistance and wear resistance, and is used for processing cast iron and non-ferrous metals. Fine grain YG type cemented carbide (such as YG3X, YG6X), in the cobalt content Ray at the same time, its hardness and abrasion resistance is higher than YG3, YG6, strength and toughness is a little poorer, is practical for processing hard cast iron, austenitic stainless steel, heat-resistant alloys, hard bronze and so on.
(2) tungsten, titanium and cobalt (WC + TiC + Co) cemented carbide (YT) "intense processing of cooked iron" Due to the hardness and melting point of TiC than WC are higher than YG, compared with its hardness, wear resistance, red hardness increase, bonding temperature is high, oxidation resistance is strong, and at high temperatures will generate TiO 2, can be eliminated bonding. But the thermal conductivity is poor, low flexural strength, so it is practical for processing steel and other tough materials.
(3) tungsten, titanium, tantalum and cobalt (WC + TiC + TaC + Co)) Cemented Carbide (YW YS) "intense processing of heat-resistant steel, high manganese steel, stainless steel and other difficult to process materials".
TaC(NbC) is added on the basis of YT type of cemented carbide, which improves the bending strength, striking toughness, high temperature hardness, oxygen resistance and wear resistance. It can process steel, cast iron and non-ferrous metals. Therefore, it is often called general-purpose cemented carbide.
What to do if a milling cutter has tool vibration?
What happens when the tool vibrates on a milling cutter?
As there is a small gap between the milling cutter and the tool holder, the tool may vibrate during the machining process. The vibration will cause the milling cutter's circumferential edge to eat unevenly, and the cutting expansion will increase compared to the original value, resulting in consequences that will affect the accuracy of the machining and the life of the tool. However, when the width of the groove machined is small, the tool can be effectively made to vibrate, after this increase in cutting and expanding the amount of the required groove width can be obtained, reminded that in this case, the milling cutter should be more amplitude is 0.02mm or less, otherwise it can not be stable cutting. The lower the vibration of the milling cutter in normal machining, the better.
When tool vibration occurs, consider reducing the cutting speed and feed rate, if both have been reduced by 40% and there is still a large vibration, consider reducing the tool draft.
If the machining system resonates, the reason may be that the cutting speed is too large, the feed rate is small, the tool system is not rigid enough, the workpiece clamping force is not enough and the shape of the workpiece or the workpiece clamping requirements and other factors, then you should take measures to adjust the cutting amount, increase the rigidity of the tool system, improve the feed rate.
Carbide milling cutter rotation operation can be divided into two kinds. The following is a brief analysis of your come Bao tool manufacturers:
Firstly, the direction of rotation of the milling cutter is the same as the cutting feed direction. At the start of the cut, the milling cutter bites into the workpiece and cuts off the chips.
Rotational operation of the carbide milling cutter
Another type of milling is reverse milling, where the milling cutter rotates in the opposite direction to the cutting feed. Before starting to cut, the milling cutter has to slide over the workpiece for a period of time, starting from zero cutting thickness and reaching a maximum cutting thickness at the end of the cut. The cutting forces of the three-sided edge milling cutter are in different directions, some end milling or face milling. In face milling, the milling cutter is just outside the workpiece, so the direction of the cutting force should be paid more attention to. In forward milling the cutting forces force the workpiece into the table, in backward milling the cutting forces force the workpiece off the table.
Forward milling is generally used due to the better cutting results, and backward milling is only considered if there is thread clearance or insurmountable problems with forward milling.
What kind of milling cutter should be used for milling aluminum alloy?
What kind of milling cutter is used for processing aluminum alloy? Is it a special tool for aluminum alloy to make it better? We mainly talk about what milling cutters are used for machining tools and cutting parameters from several aspects of processing tools and cutting parameters.
1. The processing characteristics of aluminum alloy
Milling aluminum alloy mainly has the following major characteristics:
1. Low aluminum alloy hardness
Compared with the titanium alloy and other quenching steel, the hardness of aluminum alloy is low. Of course, the heat treatment is too high, or the hardness of the die -cast aluminum alloy is also very high. The HRC hardness of ordinary aluminum plates is generally below HRC40 degrees. Therefore, when machining aluminum alloy, the carrier of the tool is small. Because of the better thermal conductivity of aluminum alloy, the cutting temperature of the milling aluminum alloy is relatively low, which can improve its milling speed.
2. Low aluminum alloy plasticity
The plasticity of aluminum alloy is low, and the melting point is low. When processing aluminum alloy, its adhesive knife is serious, with poor cripping performance, and the surface roughness is relatively high. In fact, the processing aluminum alloy is mainly the effect of sticky knife and roughness. As long as the two major problems of the sticky knife and the surface quality of the processing are solved, the problem of aluminum alloy processing is solved.
3. The tool is easy to wear
Because the unsuitable tool material is adopted, when processing aluminum alloy, the tool wear is often accelerated due to the problems of sticky knives, crumbs and other problems.
2. What milling cutter is used for processing aluminum alloy?
Machining aluminum alloys are generally used for milling cutters with 3 blade aluminum. Secondly, due to the differences in processing, 2 -edge ball head knives, or 4 blade flat knives. However, in Dahai, Dongguan, it is recommended that in most cases, you can choose a 3 -blade flat bottom milling cutter.
1. Material of high -speed steel
High -speed steel aluminum milling cutter is more sharp, and can also process aluminum alloy well.
2. The choice of aluminum tungsten steel milling cutter
Materials generally choose YG hard alloys, which can reduce the chemical affinity of the tool and aluminum alloy. General CNC -control tool brands have all -in products for processing aluminum alloy.
Third, the cutting parameters of the milling aluminum alloy
Machining ordinary aluminum alloys can generally choose high -speed advance to milling. Secondly, choose the larger front angle as much as possible to increase the space of the crumbs and reduce the phenomenon of sticky knife. If it is precision machining aluminum alloy, a water cutting fluid cannot be used to avoid forming a small pinhole on the processing surface. Generally, kerosene or diesel can be used for processing aluminum plate cutting fluid.
The cutting speed of the machining aluminum alloy milling cutter is different due to the material and parameters of the milling cutter. The specific cutting parameters can be processed based on the cutting parameters given by the manufacturer.
CNC tools help the development of the new energy industry
Now the energy industry has become a hot topic, and development has always attracted much attention. In addition to the traditional energy industry, emerging clean energy sources such as wind power, nuclear power, solar energy and tidal energy are increasingly valued by people. The rapid development of the energy industry has also put forward higher requirements for its related manufacturing industries. Among them, the tool is the tool is that the tool is the tool. One of the most critical factors is that under the premise of ensuring the quality and production efficiency of processing, we must care about how to choose a knife that should choose to choose for ourselves for the energy industry, especially the new energy industry.
Use interpretation and induction to obtain the most suitable product
The choice of tools is a very logical job. Each new project is like a reasoning question. You need to use interpretation and induction to get the most suitable products. In short, it is a process of continuous demolition and integration. The client's parts are very specific. You must demolish this thing as small as possible, detailed attributes, and each attribute has an impact on the design of the tool. To summarize these impacts Essence
For example, the processing of turbine blades, fan blades molds, a 5MW fan, its leaves can reach 60m long and 5m wide, the corresponding mold is also a big guy: from geometric perspective, large volume requires the quickly to remove the margin to remove the balance quickly. In Iska products, there are fast -metal cutting products such as the FEEDMILL series of tools under high -speed fees and interpolation and milling cutters. To remove the balance quickly, you must reduce the cutting resistance; when the long suspension is extended, it is easy to produce vibration. It is required that the cutting blade has strong impact resistance and good toughness; there is a space surface on the blades, and the knife is required to have arc elements. In summary, the following results can be obtained: Feedmill fast plane milling, cavity rough processing, Millshred for deep cavity and rough processing, and then use a round blades to process cavity.
Another example is the blade of the turbine turbine. The leaves used in the high temperature and high voltage of the steam turbine at the thermal power station are all high -temperature alloys. Toughness, so the cutting force is large, and the cutting temperature is high. The cutting resistance is reflected in the design of the tool, and the cutting force needs to be reduced by increasing the front corner and the rear corner of the tool; inhibiting the impact of the cutting temperature, the relevant results can be obtained through the knowledge of the knife coating. The thermal conductivity of the blade (tool) to slow down the impact of the temperature. Its role is like a layer of thermal film, because it has a thermal conductivity coefficient that is much lower than the tool substrate and workpiece material. For high -temperature alloys, Iska's SPS82C and IC380 are all PVD and nitrogen carbide coating for this difficult processing material.
There is a universal characteristic of the energy industry's parts. The material material is characterized by the processing of steel, stainless steel and high -temperature alloy. Iska has proposed the concept of FMR (FastMetalworkRemoval) at a very early days. And complete product lines can meet the processing of large workpieces.
Beginning in 2009, Iska has an upgrade of Helido for milling products. In short, it is the double -sided of the blade. The direct result is that the number of cutting blades can be 2 times on a blade. At the same time, the dough blade is located through the tunnel -tail blade, a larger cutting front corner, a small negative edge of the blade, we can well increase the life of the blade, and the Helido product will be a direction for the main promotion in the future. In addition to the improvement of coating, except for SPS82C and IC380, which are two special products for high -temperature alloys, all coatings have the corresponding SUMO (speed demon) technology upgrade. On the basis of ordinary PVD and CVD coating, plus a layer of alumina, the surface of the blade mouth is smoother, reducing the formation of dandruff tumors, and increasing the life of the tool.
From the beginning of research and development to actual sales, for conventional metal processing, in the comparison of the old products of Iska itself, the life expectancy increased by 10%to 30%. For non -metallic materials in the wind power industry, such as glass fiber, carbon fiber, and synthetic resin, Iska's poly crystal diamond knife (we call "PCDLINE") It has been proven to effectively prevent scales, damage, and crushing. These tools have common keywords: sharp blade, large front corners, front knife surface polishing, high -speed cutting, and small dandruff.
Shan Gao helps you stimulate infinite wind energy
In the process of the development of the new energy industry, Wind Energy, as a clean renewable energy source, is becoming more and more valued by countries around the world. European countries, the United States, and China have given strong support and promotion in their own energy planning.
In the process of the development of the new energy industry, Wind Energy, as a clean renewable energy source, is becoming more and more valued by countries around the world. European countries, the United States, and China have given strong support and promotion in their own energy planning. As a leader in the wind power industry, Shan Gao knife can not only provide high -quality tools and professional processing technologies, but also always focus on providing overall solutions for metal cutting demand. In the long -term cooperation with famous fan component manufacturers in various countries in the world, the mountain height has accumulated rich experience and strictly meets the almost "harsh" processing requirements of wind power parts manufacturers.
There are many factors such as fatigue, reliability, and vibration resistance from fatigue, reliability and vibration. For wind turbines, gear boxes, wind wheel hubs, wind power bearing (rotary support and gear), fan shafts, and wind turbine seats are extremely important working components. At the same time, they are also parts with high processing difficulty, high accuracy requirements, and large processing volume. Shan Gao provides a series of process solutions for this to help users in the wind power industry stand out in the fierce market competition.
Wind power gear box is one of the important parts of the wind power unit. Because the operating conditions of the wind turbine are complicated, reliability, and the requirements of service life, the gear box must have sufficient rigidity, suitable support structure and wall thickness to meet complex stressive needs. Common materials include ball and ink cast iron and other high -intensity cast iron. The mechanical structure of the gear box is complex and huge, which requires hundreds of hours of precision processing. Parts are more processing.
The types of machine processing of wind power gear box include milling (corn mills and three -sided blades), drilling (Perfomax series), and ravioli (bridge board 镗 风). It is worth mentioning that the diameter of the gear box connection holes exceeds 2m, and its tolerance requirements are H7. This processing is quite difficult. The mountain height Graflex bridge -type bull -headed standard products cover the size of 204 ~ 2155mm in diameter; giant (JUMBO) bridge plate hoe, the maximum diameter can reach 3200mm. They are composed of high -strength aluminum alloy and steel parts interface, taking into account the needs of flexibility, knife weight and rigidity. The accuracy requirements of maximum IT5 and RA0.6 in the essence of the essence, the size adjustment is also very convenient, which can be completed directly on the machine tool. At the same time, the modular design can also meet the needs of large diameter rounds and backbone. For example, the A731001JUMBO bridge-panel-type knife is rough with TCMT16T308-F2TK2000 blade. The cutting line speed is 150m/min, the feed speed VF reaches 25mm/min, and the depth AP is 5 ~ 6mm. The essence uses CCMT09T304-F2TK1000 blade, the cutting line speed is 120m/min, and the depth AP0.3mm is cut. These high -performance cutting parameters can ensure that customers have high component accuracy, but also greatly reduce the production cycle of customers.
The wheels are also one of the important parts of the wind turbine. Its structure and force deformation are complicated. It will directly affect the normal operation and service life of the wind turbine. Therefore, it has the characteristics of high strength, good reliability, long fatigue life, and strong vibration resistance to meet the use conditions of -20 ° C ~ 40 ° C. Common materials are low -temperature low temperature and high shock tough iron iron. The main machine processing types of the wheels are milling and drilling.
The wind wheel is huge, and the general processing cycle is long. A customer once encountered such a processing problem: Although all its machine tools were running at full load, production tasks could not be completed on time. In order to help customers cross the difficulty, Shanzhong designed a non-standard convertible formed tool with a diameter of 360mm and R85mm, supplemented by 335.19-1207en2R85-D09, F40M blade, and the cutting line speed is 200m/min. The quantity FZ0.14mm, cutting depth AP1 ~ 2mm, production efficiency is greatly improved, the production cycle of this wheel hub is shortened from the original 30H to within 16H. Customers were able to deliver smoothly to avoid major losses.
DoubleOCTOMILL double -sided blade R220.48 plane milling cutter is very suitable for wheel milling and processing. The blade of the double -sided blade milling cutter is designed with a positive front angle. Each blade has 16 cutting blades. The same milling cutter can meet the application occasions of coarse and precise processing, and has imperative economy and generalality.
The processing of wind power parts also includes a fan spindle, fan base, connecting flange, fan tower, planetary rack, fan blades, etc. For the processing of these parts, the mountain height has a solution for complete turning, milling and hole processing. Shan Gao's tools adhere to the concept of "becoming a strategic partner of customers" and are committed to improving the efficiency and competitiveness of processing for customers.
"High energy processing" becomes the focus
The eye -catching development of China's economy is continuing, and it is not exaggerated to describe it with supply. Railway networks and buildings are required to be inadequate. However, if a large number of mechanical equipment is introduced, the investment costs will be very large. Recently, customers have increasingly increased the requirements for "high energy production" and "high -efficiency production" on existing equipment.
Because the temperature of the generator's blades is very high during operation, the materials are mostly used for heat alloys. In addition, due to its complicated shapes, not only the tools, drills and vertical milling cutters, etc., are used during processing. Sumitomo Electric hard alloy is difficult to cut materials in the car blade. The material AC500 series is used. There are difficult to cut materials in the drill bit to process a multi -purpose drill MD. With inventory, the corresponding size is quite rich, which can fully meet the requirements of the complex processing of customers. The above -mentioned tools are all special materials developed for the difficulty of processing, so they can exert excellent performance in terms of wear resistance and laugher -resistant blade.
The eye -catching development of China's economy is continuing, and it is not exaggerated to describe it with supply. Railway networks and buildings are required to be inadequate. However, if a large number of mechanical equipment is introduced, the investment costs will be very large. Recently, customers have increasingly increased the requirements for "high energy production" and "high -efficiency production" on existing equipment. Therefore, the recommendation scheme of Sumitomo Electrician hard alloy is the following products with "high energy processing" as the following products.
Drivery processing: Ultra -high advances greater than f = 0.5mm/r are recommended to process dandruff processing excellent high -energy break -breaking groove series SE and GE types when processing is recommended. When the request is higher (~ 0.8mm/R), the light -edged blade type LUW type and Guw type are recommended.
Milling processing: It is recommended to use the MS1400 type of high -advancement and milling cutter. Although the depth cannot be greater than 1.5mm, the feed can be corresponding to 2mm/blade.
Drilling processing: The newly developed J -shaped horizontal blade repair improves dandruff treatment. Coupled with a special crumb groove shape, it can also exert excellent dandruff discharge when processing. In addition, because the latest PVD coatings and DEX coatings are used, it has achieved long life. Here is a hard alloy multi -purpose drill GS/HGS type. If the aperture is more than 12.5mm, it is recommended to use the sword head -replaceable drill bit SMD type.
High -hardness material processing
During the high -speed/high -energy rate processing of high -hardness materials, there are 4 coating CBN materials according to different uses. BNC100 is recommended during high -speed/continuous processing, BNC160 is recommended during weak interruption, BNC200 is recommended during high energy processing, and BNC300 is recommended during interrupted processing. In addition, the high -push is recommended during processing or high -precision processing.
The rotary supporting ring is a more representative difficult part in wind power components. According to the capacity (size) of the wind turbine, its size is also diverse, and the rotation support ring with a diameter of more than 2m is particularly difficult to process. In particular, the processing accuracy when processing (hard vehicle) after quenching (hard car) requires strict processing, the knife life is short, and there are many installation holes.
The first recommendation of the bearing surface after quenching (Hardturning) is excellent wear resistance and can correspond to the BNC160 that can be processed by large -scale workpieces. If there are high -speed processing requirements, it is recommended to use BNC100. The company prepares three types of blades for various CBN materials, which can choose the most suitable blade port according to the degree of damage of the tool and the required surface roughness.
Installed hole processing
The installation holes of the rotary support ring are generally about φ25mm, and the hole depth is about 100mm. When processing these holes, it is recommended to use the WDX type on the right. Each blade has 4 blade corners that can be used in good economy, and the most suitable blade broken dandruff groove is also good when processing L/D = 5 deep pores. However, if the accuracy requirements of the hole are less than ± 0.15mm, the aforementioned SMD type is recommended.
The characteristics, use, and type of commonly used reamer
The characteristics, use, and type of commonly used re -re -cutting
Characteristics of the re of the re-re-blade: The pillar is the cutting of the puppets, and the re-blade is cut in 4-8 blade, so the efficiency is high), the high-precision, and the hinge blade mouth with the blade band, so they get the obtained Better roughness;
The pores that are used for drilling, expanding holes, and holes on the hinge workpiece are mainly to improve the processing accuracy of the holes and improve the roughness of the surface of the workpiece. The amount of cutting tools is generally very large.
The re -cuttings used to process cylindrical holes are more commonly used.
The re -cutter used to process the cone hole is a cone -shaped re -cutter, which is less used.
From the perspective of usage, the housing and the machine are used for the re -re -blade, and the machine can be divided into a straight handle re -blade and a taper re -cutle. The hand is used in a straight handle.
Most of the hinge structure consists of the working part and the handle. The work part is mainly cutting and calibrated, and the diameter of the calibration office has inverted cone. The handle is used to be held by the clip, which is divided into a straight handle and a cone handle. There are many types according to different purposes, so there are many standards for re -cuttings. Some of our more common standards include re -re -blades, straight handle machines with rectums, rectors of cone handle machines, and straight handle. Centellar re -re -blade and so on.
There are two types of knife). The pupils of the re -cutter have straight grooves and spiral grooves.
The hinge precision is D4, H7, H8, H9 and other precision levels.
It is divided into three types: cylindrical, cone -shaped and doorway -shaped according to the shape of the reed holes;
The installation method is divided into two types: handle and suit type;
Divide straight grooves and spiral grooves according to the shape of the altitude
Portum customization: In customized non -standard tools, the re -cutter is a more common custom -made tool. According to different products, deep, diameter, accuracy, roughness requirements, and workpiece materials are made Life, accuracy, roughness, and stability.
The main functions of sculpting tools and stone carving machines
The main functions of sculpting tools and stone carving machines
Main functions: stone engraving, stone relief, stone yang carving, stone yin carving, stone line carving, stone cutting, stone hollow.
1. Classification of stone carving machine carving tools:
A series (ordinary knife alloy knife): uses high -performance alloy materials, double -edged design, good sharpness, high cost performance, and easy to grind by hand. Disadvantages: Because the angle is not standard (there is another larger angle at the tip of the knife), it is not suitable for relief. Generally used for sculpting bluestone, marble!
B series (standard angle alloy knife): uses high -performance alloy materials, double -edged design, angle standards, engraving, fine relief effects. Generally used for sculpting bluestone, marble! Can be made into a flat -bottomed knife with a flat bottom
The C series (Metro Molf Diamond Mill Earlier): Metro Molf Diamond Stone Sword, Military High -tech "Moisturizing Diamond Stone Technology" manufacturing! It has the characteristics of good sharpness, high sculpture efficiency, no deformation of the carved knife head, high sculpture accuracy! Therefore, when carving marble, bluestone, sandstone and other materials, it is often used as the first choice for high -efficiency relief, which is also a weapon for engraving.
D series (overall alloy triangular knife): The overall alloy triangular knife uses ultra -particle ultra -wear -resistant alloy. The abrasion resistance is much higher than other triangular knives on the market. Angle standard, good lettering effect! Customers with a universal grinding machine can use this knife. If there is no universal grinding machine, it is not recommended to use it!
E series (PCD polycrystalline diamond knife): Adopt imported polycrystalline diamond blade, the quality is far from cheap domestic blade comparable! Using vacuum welding technology, blade does not damage or fall off; micro -grinding technology makes the blade sharpness and optimization of strength. It is generally used to engraved the small words of granite. Good hardness, high life, good engraving effect. When using, you should pay attention to the flexible knife, do not go too hard!
F series (sintering diamond grinding head knife): sintering diamond grinding head is generally used for granite milling bottom. Because the knife is made of multi -layer diamond sintering, it has a very high life span! The disadvantage is that the sharpness is not high, and the knife head will deform. Therefore, sculpture marble, bluestone and other materials, in order to obtain higher output and carving effects, it is not recommended to use a sintering knife. When making granite and other difficult processing stones, in order to avoid too high knives, sintering grinders can be selected!
G series (diamond four -edge knife): Generally engraved with granite small characters or line carving. The advantage is that the life span is high, the disadvantage is that the sharpness is relatively poor, and the carving depth is shallow!
Common Problems and Solutions of Tool Deep Hole Machining
In the process of deep hole machining, problems such as the dimensional accuracy, surface quality and tool life of the workpiece often occur. How to reduce or even avoid these problems is an urgent problem to be solved at present. The following are 6 common problems and solutions for deep hole machining of tools, I hope to help everyone!
1, the aperture increases, the error is large
The design value of the outer diameter of the reamer is too large or the reamer cutting edge has burrs;
Cutting speed is too high;
Improper feed rate or excessive machining allowance;
The main declination angle of the reamer is too large;
Chip edge adhered to the reamer cutting edge;
When sharpening, the swing of the reaming cutting edge is out of tolerance;
Inappropriate selection of cutting fluid;
When installing the reamer, the oil on the surface of the taper shank is not wiped clean or the taper surface is bumped;
After the flat tail of the taper shank is offset into the machine tool spindle, the taper shank taper interferes;
The main shaft is bent or the main shaft bearing is too loose or damaged;
Reamer floating is not flexible;
When the axis is different from the workpiece and the force of both hands is uneven when reaming by hand, the reamer shakes from side to side.
Appropriately reduce the outer diameter of the reamer according to the specific situation;
reduce cutting speed;
Properly adjust the feed or reduce the machining allowance;
Appropriately reduce the main declination angle;
Straighten or scrap bent unusable reamers;
Carefully trimmed with whetstone to pass;
The control swing is within the allowable range;
Choose cutting fluid with better cooling performance;
Before installing the reamer, the reamer taper shank and the inside of the taper hole of the machine tool must be wiped clean, and the taper surface with bumps must be polished with whetstone;
Grinding reamer flat tail;
Adjust or replace the spindle bearing;
Readjust the floating chuck and adjust the coaxiality;
Pay attention to correct operation.
2. Aperture reduction
The design value of the outer diameter of the reamer is too small;
Cutting speed is too low;
The feed rate is too large;
The main declination angle of the reamer is too small;
Inappropriate selection of cutting fluid;
When sharpening, the worn part of the reamer is not worn off, and the elastic recovery reduces the aperture;
When reaming steel parts, if the allowance is too large or the reamer is not sharp, it is easy to produce elastic recovery, which reduces the aperture and the inner hole is not round, and the aperture is unqualified.
Replace the outer diameter of the reamer;
Appropriately increase the cutting speed;
Appropriately reduce the feed;
Properly increase the main declination angle;
Choose oily cutting fluid with good lubricating performance;
Replace the reamer regularly, and sharpen the cutting part of the reamer correctly;
When designing the size of the reamer, the above factors should be considered, or the value should be selected according to the actual situation;
For experimental cutting, take an appropriate allowance and sharpen the reamer.
3. The reamed inner hole is not round
The reamer is too long, the rigidity is insufficient, and vibration occurs during reaming;
The main declination angle of the reamer is too small;
The reaming cutting edge is narrow;
The reaming allowance is biased;
There are gaps and cross holes on the surface of the inner hole;
There are blisters and pores on the surface of the hole;
The spindle bearing is loose, there is no guide sleeve, or the clearance between the reamer and the guide sleeve is too large, and the workpiece is deformed after being removed due to the thin-walled workpiece being clamped too tightly.
The reamer with insufficient rigidity can use the reamer with unequal pitch, and the installation of the reamer should adopt rigid connection to increase the main declination angle;
Select qualified reamer to control hole position tolerance in pre-machining process;
Adopt reamer with unequal pitch, adopt longer and more precise guide sleeve;
Select qualified blanks;
When using an equal-pitch reamer to ream more precise holes, the spindle clearance of the machine tool should be adjusted, and the matching clearance of the guide sleeve should be higher or an appropriate clamping method should be used to reduce the clamping force.
4. The inner surface of the hole has obvious facets
The reaming allowance is too large;
The rear angle of the cutting part of the reamer is too large;
The reaming cutting edge is too wide;
The surface of the workpiece has pores, sand holes and the spindle swing is too large.
Reduce the reaming allowance;
Reduce the clearance angle of the cutting part;
Grinding edge width;
Select qualified blanks;
Adjust the machine tool spindle.
5. The service life of the reamer is low
Inappropriate reamer material;
The reamer burns when sharpening;
The selection of cutting fluid is inappropriate, the cutting fluid fails to flow smoothly, and the surface roughness value of cutting and reaming is too high.
Select the reamer material according to the processing material, and can use a carbide reamer or a coated reamer;
Strictly control the amount of sharpening and cutting to avoid burns;
Always choose the cutting fluid correctly according to the processing material;
The chips in the chip flute are often removed, and the cutting fluid with sufficient pressure is used for fine grinding or grinding to meet the requirements.
6. The center line of the hole after reaming is not straight
The drilling deflection before reaming, especially when the hole diameter is small, cannot correct the original curvature due to the poor rigidity of the reamer;
The main declination angle of the reamer is too large;
Poor guidance makes the reamer easy to deviate from the direction during reaming;
The reverse taper of the cutting part is too large;
The reamer is displaced at the gap in the middle of the interrupted hole;
When reaming by hand, too much force in one direction forces the reamer to deflect to one end and destroys the verticality of the reamed hole.
Increase the hole reaming or boring process to correct the hole;
Decrease the main declination angle;
Adjust the appropriate reamer;
Replace the reamer with a guide part or an extended cutting part;
Detailed classification and advantages of thread milling cutters
Thread milling cutters mainly use thread turning tools to turn threads or use taps and dies to manually tap and buckle. Compared with traditional thread processing methods, thread milling has great advantages in processing accuracy and processing efficiency, and it is not restricted by thread structure and thread rotation during processing. For example, a thread milling cutter can process a variety of different rotation directions. Internal and external threads. For the thread that does not allow transitional buckle or undercut structure, it is difficult to machine using traditional turning methods or taps and dies, but it is very easy to achieve using CNC milling. In addition, the durability of thread milling cutters is more than ten times or even dozens of times that of taps, and in the process of CNC milling threads, it is easy to adjust the size of the thread diameter, which is difficult to achieve with taps and dies. Due to the many advantages of thread milling, the current milling process has been widely used in mass thread production in developed countries.
Thread milling cutter classification:
1. Integral type: suitable for small and medium diameter thread milling of steel, cast iron and non-ferrous metal materials, smooth cutting and high durability. Thread cutters with different coatings are used to process different materials.
2. Welding type: DIY type thread milling cutter used to process deep holes or special workpieces and weld the head of the thread milling cutter to another tool. The cutter has poor strength and flexibility, and its safety factor depends on the workpiece material and the technology of the thread milling cutter maker.
3. Replaceable blade type: It is composed of a milling cutter bar and blades. Its characteristics are that the blades are easy to manufacture and low in price. Some threaded blades can be cut on both sides, but the impact resistance is slightly worse than that of integral thread milling cutters. Therefore, this tool is often recommended for machining aluminum alloy materials.
Advantages of thread milling cutter:
1. The processing efficiency of thread milling cutter is much higher than that of wire tapping.
2. Blind hole thread milling cutters can be milled to the bottom, but not wire tapping.
3. The finish is good, and the teeth milled by the thread milling cutter are more beautiful than the wire tap.
4. A thread milling cutter can process internal and external threads of different rotation directions, but wire tapping is not acceptable.
5. Thread milling cutter is not full-tooth contact cutting, and the load and cutting force of the machine tool are smaller than that of wire taps.
6. When processing large threaded holes, the efficiency of wire tapping is low, and the thread milling cutter can be instantaneously realized.
7. An optional thread milling cutter bar can replace metric, American, and English blades, which is economical.
8. When processing high-hardness threads, the thread taps are severely worn and even unable to be processed. The thread milling cutter can be easily realized.
9. The thread milling cutter cuts into powdery short chips, and there is no possibility of entanglement. The wire tap is processed into spiral iron chips, which is easy to entangle the tool.
10. Easy to install and clamp. Flexible tapping tool holder is required for tapping. ER, HSK, hydraulic, thermal expansion and other tool holders for thread milling cutters can be used.
11. For some materials, thread milling cutters can drill, mill teeth and chamfer at one time, but wire taps cannot.
12. For threaded holes with the same pitch and different sizes, several taps need to be replaced, and thread milling cutters can be used universally.
13. The cost is lower. Although a single thread milling cutter is more expensive than a wire tap, the cost of a single threaded hole is higher than that of a wire tap.
14. The precision is higher, the thread milling cutter realizes the precision with the tool compensation, and the customer can choose the thread precision he needs at will.
15. Long life, the life of thread milling cutter is more than ten times or even dozens of times that of wire tap, reducing the time of tool change and machine adjustment.
16. Don't be afraid of breaking. After the wire tap is broken, the workpiece may be scrapped. Even if the thread milling cutter is manually broken, it is easy to take out, and the workpiece will not be scrapped.
Super hard tool and its selection
With the development of modern science and technology, various high-hardness engineering materials are increasingly used, and traditional turning technology is difficult or impossible to process certain high-hardness materials. Coated cemented carbide, ceramics, PCBN and other super-hard tool materials have high high-temperature hardness, wear resistance and thermochemical stability, which provide the most basic prerequisites for the cutting of high-hardness materials. Obvious benefits have been achieved in production.
The material used by superhard tools and their tool structure and geometric parameters are the basic elements for hard turning. Therefore, how to choose superhard tool materials and design reasonable tool structures and geometric parameters is very important to stably realize hard turning.
Blade structure and geometric parameters of superhard tools
Reasonable determination of insert shape and geometric parameters is essential to give full play to the cutting performance of the tool. In terms of tool strength, the tip strength of various blade shapes from high to low are: round, 100° diamond, square, 80° diamond, triangle, 55° diamond, 35° diamond. After the blade material is selected, the blade shape with the highest strength should be selected. Hard turning inserts should also choose the largest possible nose arc radius, and rough machining with round and large nose arc radius inserts. The nose arc radius during finishing is about 0.8μm.
Hardened steel chips are red and soft ribbon-like, brittle, easy to break, non-sticky, hardened steel cutting surface quality is high, generally does not produce built-up edge, but the cutting force is large, especially the radial cutting force It is larger than the main cutting force, so the tool should adopt a negative rake angle (go≥-5°) and a larger relief angle (ao=10°~15°). The entering angle depends on the rigidity of the machine tool, generally 45°~60° to reduce the chatter of the workpiece and the tool.
Superhard tool cutting parameters and requirements for process system
1. Selection of cutting parameters
The higher the hardness of the workpiece material, the lower the cutting speed should be. The suitable cutting speed range for hard turning and finishing using superhard tools is 80~200m/min, and the commonly used range is 10~150m/min; when large cutting depth or strong intermittent cutting of high hardness materials is adopted, the cutting speed should be kept at 80~100m /min. Under normal circumstances, the cutting depth is between 0.1 and 0.3 mm.
For workpieces with low surface roughness, a small depth of cut can be selected, but it should not be too small and should be suitable. The feed rate can usually be selected from 0.05 to 0.25mm/r, and the specific value depends on the surface roughness value and productivity requirements. When the surface roughness Ra=0.3~0.4μm, hard turning with superhard tools is much more economical than grinding.
2. Requirements for the process system
In addition to choosing a reasonable tool, the use of superhard tools for hard turning has no special requirements on the lathe or turning center. If the lathe or turning center is rigid enough, and the required accuracy and surface roughness can be obtained when processing soft workpieces, that is Can be used for hard cutting. In order to ensure the smoothness and continuity of the turning operation, the commonly used method is to use a rigid clamping device and a medium rake angle tool. If the positioning, support, and rotation of the workpiece can be kept fairly stable under the action of cutting force, the existing equipment can use superhard tools for hard turning.
After years of research and exploration, my country has made great progress in superhard tools. However, the application of superhard tools in production is not extensive. The main reasons are as follows: manufacturers and operators do not know enough about the effect of hard turning with superhard tools. It is generally believed that hard materials can only be ground; the cost of tools is too high. The initial tool cost of hard turning is higher than that of ordinary cemented carbide tools (for example, PCBN is more than ten times more expensive than ordinary cemented carbide), but the cost allocated to each part is lower than that of grinding, and the benefits brought are more than ordinary Cemented carbide is much better; the research on the machining mechanism of superhard tools is not enough; the specifications of superhard tool machining are not enough to guide production practice.
Therefore, in addition to in-depth research on the machining mechanism of superhard tools, it is also necessary to strengthen the training of superhard tool processing knowledge, successful experience demonstrations and strict operating specifications, so that this efficient and clean processing method can be used more in actual production.
What are the characteristics of aluminum milling cutters?
At present, the processed aluminum parts are mainly divided into two categories: deformed aluminum alloy and cast aluminum alloy. Then, what kind of milling cutter is used for processing aluminum alloy, is it special milling cutter for aluminum alloy or special cutter for aluminum alloy, and its processing efficiency is better? In this paper, from the aspects of milling characteristics, machining tools and cutting parameters of aluminum alloy, it is best to talk about the milling cutter used for machining aluminum alloy.
First, the processing characteristics of aluminum alloy Milling aluminum alloy has the following major features;
1. Low hardness of aluminum alloy Compared with titanium alloy and other hardened steel, the hardness of aluminum alloy is lower, of course, heat treatment, or the hardness of die-cast aluminum alloy is also high. The HRC hardness of ordinary aluminum plates is generally below 40 degrees HRC. Therefore, when machining an aluminum alloy, the load of the tool is small. Because of the better thermal conductivity of aluminum alloy, the cutting temperature of milling aluminum alloy is relatively low, which can improve the milling speed.
2. The alloy of aluminum is low in plasticity and has low plasticity and low melting point. When the aluminum alloy is processed, the problem of the sticking knife is serious, the chip discharging performance is poor, and the surface roughness is also relatively high. In fact, the processing of aluminum alloy is mainly the sticking knife and the roughness is not good. As long as the two problems of the sticky knife and the surface quality are solved, the problem of aluminum alloy processing is solved.
3, the tool is easy to wear because the tool material is not suitable, when processing aluminum alloy, the tool wear is often accelerated due to problems such as sticking knife and chip removal.
Machining aluminum alloys generally use a 3-blade aluminum milling cutter. Secondly, due to the difference in processing conditions, a 2-blade ball-end knife or a 4-blade flat-bottom knife is likely to be used. However, it is recommended that in most cases, a 3-blade flat end mill can be used.
1. The number of selected blades for aluminum tungsten steel milling cutters is generally 3 blades. The material is generally selected from YG type hard alloys, which can reduce the chemical affinity of the tool and aluminum alloy. General CNC tool brands have a series of special milling cutters for processing aluminum alloys.
2, high-speed steel material high-speed steel aluminum milling cutter is more sharp, but also can be well processed aluminum alloy.
3. Cutting parameters of milling aluminum alloy
High-speed large-feed milling can be selected for processing ordinary aluminum alloys. Secondly, choose a larger front angle as much as possible to increase the chip space and reduce the phenomenon of sticking. If it is a finished aluminum alloy, it is not possible to use a liquid cutting fluid to avoid forming small pinholes on the machined surface. Generally, kerosene or diesel oil can be used as the cutting fluid for processing aluminum plates. The cutting speed of the machined aluminum alloy milling cutter varies depending on the material and parameters of the milling cutter and the machining process. The specific cutting parameters can be processed based on the cutting parameters given by the manufacturer.